In micro-needling we simply use the body’s self-healing mechanisms. It reacts to the intrusion of micro-needles like it would react to any other skin-penetrating object. But the difference is the size of the object – the micro-needle. The intrusion of tiny surgical needles (provided they are professionally designed) is sensed by skin nerve receptors as an injury stimulus. But the needles are so fine and thin that tissue damage is unlikely. The skin integrity actually stays intact. However, this “nerve-stimulus,” transported by electrical signals, triggers the cascade of the healing process. Skin cells, in a radius of 1 to 2 mm around the pricking channel, release growth signals to undifferentiated cells. These signals in return stimulate the proliferation of new cells, e.g. fibroblasts to transform into collagen and elastin fibres. The task of fibroblasts is to migrate the point of intrusion for wound closure. And here comes the trick: The pricking channels caused by the micro-needles close very quickly and no tissue lesion can be detected, and none has to be repaired. The transformation for wound repair cells (e.g., fibroblasts and others) is an automatic process – like a one-way road. Their final mission is to transform into collagen fibres. They integrate into the existing collagen formation in the upper dermis. This new fibre formation – in terms of many hundred percent – thickens the skin and fills former atrophic scars. As single needle prick has no effect. But if thousands of microscopic needle-pricks are used, the induced collagen formation becomes confluent and forms a new collagen layer. This body reaction is called neo-collagenesis.
In addition, the inner cells that coat our vessels (endothelial cells), particular those of our capillaries, are also stimulated to proliferate. They react to this stimulation by sprouting out new capillaries that in turn result in more and better blood supply to the skin. This reaction is called neo-angiogenesis.